ending of hurt locker

The ending is sad, it reflects how james has failed, you see the contrast of the pan of children shouting toawrds the car begging for food and then a cut to james in a super market looking at the large amount of food options shown by a long shot veiw of the cereal. Men doing House hold jobs looks un natural to men, theres a close up of the mens face shwoing he is uncofotable in this situation of a everyday life event. There is a relfecing shot of himself in the fridge door, this can be said to be an establishing shot, a self examination, hes unhappy. Evangellena lilly, a star actress dominates the screen showing her female dominats in this area of shopping. The cereal looks big in comparison to him due to the low angle wide angle of an extreme long shot, showing he is uncomfotable and vulnerable.  Cuts to him cleaning out the gutters, dark low key, low contrast lighting is used to reflecting his mood, boring life he doesnt want to have it doesnt excite him. In the kitchen the charcters aren’t shot together becuase she doesnt want to talk about the subject of war, reflects how both of them feel uncomfortable, she feels uncomfotable maybe becuae she knows he does.  The baby and his girlfriend dont have a name, this shows how this film is dominated by male charcters due to it being a war film the focus is on soldiers. “with me i think its only one”  cuts to a helipcoper confirms his one love is war. Long shot of him boot walking, there is then a close up of his face to be relaxed and confident and determind, this is like a typical western heroic this glamories war. followed by a match cut  of his army boots walking straight back into war doing the exact same thing. face, boots, face, pattern reflecting everything in order. Facial expression similing the suit makes him who he is. he has a power fetish, or war, it is filmed in documentary style circle narrative reflecting how war is still going on.

Advertisements

opening of Hurt locker

The opening of hurt locker begins with a title ‘The rus of battle is oftern a potent and lethal addiction, war is a drug’.  This is a power statement from a journalist who has written war books, he is and activist against war. He is able to identify the problem with war going on for so long. This immediately makes the film is going to be against war, showing a negative point of view suggesting no happy ending. There  is then a close up of a crushed pepsi can, this reflects the commercialised nature of america, symbolises how america have taken over them. The fact the can is crushed it shows the competition, links to the boy selling the western  DVDs. The war is still going on but money and commerical things are still a problem, a political critism. The next shot is  a long shot of dead pigs hanging featuring soliders. The is shot foreshadows what is about to happen. The butcher is acting innocently as a civilian, where as as he knows that he has a phone to detonate the bomb. The sound the veiwer hears is a heart beat and it gets faster as you can hear the civillians screaming. There is a close up shot of a camera screen of a bomb disposal unit ,this shows technological awareness, it also flecting how this film is modern made in mordern day. This fulls into authenticity, showing what the US militarily use in the iraq war. Fuzzy and unclear image on the screen adds to the difficulty of what they are doing.  The way they describe the difficulty through their use of dialogue of their job, it comes across as weird and rude remarks, this suggest that the chracters are quite comfotable at this point in the film no danger coming too soon.

In a over the shoulder shot we see through Thompsons lighthearted descripson of the bomb that he is making, this again shows their relaxed nature, this could create frustration for the audience as they want them to take it serioulsy, however this relaxed nature could on the other hand make some viewers feel trust toawrds them because they seem to know what they are doing. There is a low angle shot of a heard of  goats who  run past, they remind the audience where the film is set, in a domestic poor area in Irac., live stock runs around freely in the streets. It reflects the cultural differences goats are allowed to walk about, adds to the comedic element from the soldiers. The sheeps are a metaphor for The locals  showing they are treated worse by being pushed around. It relfcts the contrasts between the undevelped country, compared to the tech coverd soldiers. There is a long shot of the men in the middle of doing the bomb disposal mentions that hes “craving a burger”. This has sterotypical American connotations, and also foreshadows his death, as burgers are the most common last meal request. It is also protraying a very hyper-masuline type of man, talking about burgers and saying ‘dick’ jokes. There is a low angle shot showing a bomb cart being broken, showing the lack of military reseourses/ funding and how the US army have let them down. There are helicopters and expensive machinery, yet the one simple thing they need int working. It creates a frustrated emotional response for the audience. There is then a low angle point of shot of a US helicopter, its as though they are looking over them, watching out for them. This shot again adds to the authenticty of a real US aircraft. This also could be a reflection of heaven reflecting his death. There is a two-shot mid shot, it shows the contrast between the US army and the locals. They both take up the same amount of the screen, but eh man is reaching out with his hand whereas the soldier is using his gun, this is a powerful and violent image . This shot also provides context, by showing the poor conditions that they are living in and how the army is making it worse. There is a close up shot of a soilders face to show the emotion. The two charcters have a light-hearted conersation which momentarily breaks the tension. This adds characters development to the two charcters. There is a close up shot of bombs using handheld camera creating tention and realism, relfecing the need to becarful with the bombs.

There is use of a POV shot of dead pigs, makes the audience feel as though they are there, creates an emotionl response and tension. Non- diegtic music is used bong like, showing they are the oppenents. The enviroment isnt clean reflecting whre he film is set but also relfecst how they are not sure whats going on.  There is a close up of a phone, this shot reflects the power that the character holds, as it destucts the bomb. It confirms what you think is going to happen. The next shot is shot using hand held camera movement makes the shot a bit blurred because of HC bomb making everthing shake to make it as though we are really there, adds to the realism. Its a long shot so this also makes us feel like were watching him from a safer distance. The movement of the camera makes us panic in the distance soliders watching over the bomb disposer but it wasnt enough to stop the butcher, this shot is then repeated time and time again this creates shock for the audience. With the use of slow motion creates a emotional impact on the audience, it was unexpscted as it was a known actor, for him to die so easy, causing shock. The ending of the begging of the scene

Opening of Saving private Ryan

The films i will be focusing on is saving private ryan directed by steven spielberg (1998) and Hurt Locker directed by Kathryn Bigelow (2008. ) Saving private Ryan and Hurt locker are popular films, saving priavte ryan winning five Oscar for best director and best cinematogrpahy, best sound, best film editing, best effects, best picture. Also the director for hurt locker got best dirctor in 2010 and she was the only female.

From the opening of saving private ryan a use of a close up shot of a flag, this reflects the war patriotism of the film, being proud to be american, this positions the audience from a point of view of an american, as the audience is primarily american.   The flag dominates the whole screen, the viewer can see it is desaturated this reflects how this film was based in the past, it also reflects a tinge of sadness,Showing how America isnt  entirely whole. The way it waves in the wind reflects how america and the old man has a  weakness from the events of this war. This is a low angle shot it makes it look heavnly  suggesting this theme of death.  non diegettic Music is being playing in major sets the sad tone by being slow and sombre.  There is an enigma shot of feet we dont know who it is or what thy’re doing. A full orchestra of music starts to play as the old man walks towards the graves, he begins to cry sets up the tone of the film, sets the emotional agenda of the film from the outset.The camera tracks individual graves but also collectively, this reflects the film has for the death of soldiers, there is a beat of a snare drum when the camera stops on the individual graves as this sound is associated with war and patriotism. There is a close up shot of a french flag this gives context to the viewer indicating the characters are at a memorial in france. There is then the use of a graphic match when zooming into priavte ryans face, this misleads the viewer into thinking the captain is saving private ryan. There is a significance of setting it in present day this seeds misperception.

From the start of The beach landing scene, there are close ups of individual shots of mens faces showing their individual responses, some men are being  sea sick this creates realism straight from the off the creates sympathy from the audience. As the men jump into the water these series of shots contrast with the chaos and makes the battle scene more powerful, and intensifies the violence, the audience would become desensitised if this scene was just one continuous battle. The muffled sound of underwater, is subject positioning the means the audience can hear what the character is hearing, this again creates realism. This bttele scene is slightly desaturated/He used such things as desaturated colour, which added to the dulled effect, which brought out the great tragedy and emotions in the film,By adding desaturation to the colour made the deaths seem more explicit, dark and deeply disturbing.In addition, the portrayal of the old newsreels allowed the audience to feel as if they were really there witnessing the events that were taking place in the 1940’s. The battle is overly surrounded with blood this creates realism and creates shock for the audience.The sanctity of life is presented to the audience with lack of meaning; death is illustrated throughout the opening scene as continuous and ordinary.The film questions the value of human life and what is valid to sacrifice for it. Sound is a key factor utilized by Spielberg to add realism.

Throughout the opening battle scene sounds of gunfire fill the air as the soldiers make their way towards the beach.The soundtrack consists of loud noises, for example, gun fire and exploding bombs.This feature reinforces various points in the scene where dialogue is barely audible, this particular layout is deliberately done so by Spielberg to emphasise to the audience how in reality but in particular, war the difficulties present were.Moreover, such small but vital details as these allow the audience to realise what it was truly like for the soldiers on the battle field.In this scene there is too a lot of confusion presented by the muting of sound, which is shown by the way that the soldiers react mainly because of shock and the fact that death cannot be escaped.
This rich use of depriving sound adds to the anxiety and anticipation of the scene, including the creation of realistic chaos typical of intense military conflict.
Spielberg applies innovative ways of sound placement and sound deprivation to help reveal character and reinforce central ideas and themes.
With the sound effects rising, such as the clanging of the bottle and the man being sick at the begging of the scene, makes the audience aware of the growing tension.
Furthermore, regarding sound, Captain Miller’s moment of confusion shows the idea of being shell-shocked.
As a bomb loudly crashes into the beach near where Captain Miller is walking.
This is greatly shown by the camera shaking to add more chaos and shows that there is more destruction in this scene.
Spielberg purposefully used a shaker to vibrate the camera to approximate the impact of explosions.
As Captain Miller is shocked, the cameras zoom into a close up of him in jerky slow motion.This creates the idea of helplessness.
Many films use blank munitions for sound effects that mimic gunfire, but on the contrary Spielberg instead used weapons with live rounds.
The realistic effects of the gunfire and the innovative placement of sounds create a rich cinematic experience, in order to present realism.
Moreover, Spielberg too applies the use of camera shots to present “Saving Private Ryan” in a realistic portrayal to the audience.
What’s more effective about the scene is where the soldiers are still on the engine boat, immediately after the boat door opens, chaos suddenly enters the film.
An unforeseen event occurs as German soldier’s fire their guns at the only recently arrived Americans.
At this part, Spielberg has the cameras set over the German soldiers’ shoulder with their identity concealed.
Such actions from Spielberg illustrate to the audience that no matter what nations participate in the war, nothing good can come from conflict, in this case war.
This long shot is also effective as it gives a clear view of their dominance and acts again humanity.
As the soldiers are suddenly taken down one by one with the sound of the rushing bullets, the handheld cameras are immediately brought out.
They follow the few remaining survivors into the sea.
As the camera drifts above and below the water, chaos suddenly emerges as if the individuals present were drowning.
This is too presented because the sound is muted as if it were the soldiers own lack of senses not working in his time of turbulence.
Spielberg uses haphazard cameras to follow the soldiers into the battle.
It has the audience directly feel as if they’re apart of the action because they can view and experience the battle themselves.
This allows the audience to feel more involved in the whole experience as if they’re following the soldiers, and taking part in the war themselves.
There are a series of long shots of the soldiers but soon changes to the point of view of the Germans once more.
This is a great technique as other conventional films only demonstrate the battles being from one-side but using an over-the-shoulder shot for the point of view makes the Germans appear more powerful as they are looking down upon the soldiers and therefore have an advantage.
In this scene we can also see that the most common emotion felt is confusion as many soldiers appear to be lost and traumatized because of the terror they witness.
The second section of the opening scene was in instant chaos.
As the camera turns away from the iron hedgehog and set to a close up of Captain Miller nerves, which is shown through his shaking hands.
Also as the camera zooms away from the single image of Captain Miller, the director emphasises how significant his presence is in the war.
When the men are shot down underwater there are various close up shots of the wounded, to try and encourage sympathy for the suffering war veterans went through for society as a whole.
This is made realistic by Spielberg hiring actual amputees being casted into the film.
In “Saving Private Ryan” the camera focuses on capturing key moments of torment.
The film consists of some men jump over the sides of the boat to avoid gun fire, only to be drowned by their own packs
The air is heavily filled with smoke and the sound of screams
Image after image of unforgettable carnage is displayed, and at one point, everything seems to slow down, and the sounds grow distant, as though time were standing still
Overall Spielberg has clearly made several attempts to illustrate the film “Saving Private Ryan” in a realistic manner, in which I believe he has succeeded.
Moreover, the soldiers were in authentic uniforms and weighted down with heavy guns and seen shaking in fear, praying, and throwing up
Soldiers that survived that day to tell their story helped provide details about what they experienced.
The images shown were extremely shocking and brutal but showed the audience what fighting in war was really like and how several soldiers suffered and died
“Realism in film is achieved through artiface”- Bazin

Robert Capa- photographer: Level of cultural recognition
Action reaction- Germans POV vs Americans POV
Editing: long duration shots
No dramatic irony- we don’t know anything that the people on the beach know
Tom Hanks- non matrixed index: shaking hands
Dialogue before bomb sounds- individual shots- generates sympathy
Long slow build up however all of the men being shot in the boat happens suddenly- presents how the war is unexpected/ shocking
German soldier’s representation: silhouettes/ gunning down the soldiers that have already fixed us with some empathy
Blood on screen= more real
Start to associate with a character as they start to speak/ they’re being saved however they die
Repetition of German POV
All the light in the middle- dark around the edges- makes it seem like it’s our perspective
Repetition of subjective positioning

How far have your contextual studies informed your understanding of characters and their situations you have studied for this topic? Final essay

The films i will be focusing on is two golden age films, Rashomon directed by Kurosawa (1950) and  Ugestu directed by Mizoguchi (1953). These golden age films reflect the aftermath of World War II and particularly the atomic bomb, and the subsequent American occupation left the country scarred, but filled with inspiration and eagerness to start over. I will also be focusing on two films produced in the new wave, Irezumi directed by Masumara  (1966) and Kuroneko directed by shindo (1968). These new wave films represents a  post-war economic miracle this is when  Japan rapidly became the world’s second largest economy.

The opening of Rashomon it starts of with montage of shots showing different images of where the film is set, there are diagonal lines shown through wood this reflects the complicated and disturbing situation japan is it after the war, Also the director of the film Kurosawa, was  also an abstract artist so he likes to reflect abstract shapes into his film, his use of long shots come from the western genre, due to the US power. There is a  establishing shot of the Japaneses hut this instantly shows the audience the after effects of the war shown through the hut building as  it is destroyed.  This sets the scene with the pouring of rain this reflects the pathetic fallacy of the situation, as the guys are feeling down about reflecting on war and how men are supposedly all lairs. The rain stops as they are talking shows that what their talking about should be focused on. The Slow editing used also reflects the sad slow mood. There is a long shot used this is a typical micro feature of a Japanese film, as The extreme long shot was first invented by the western genre typically the “lonerider”, occupies a small ratio of the screen space in relation to the setting or their surroundings. In the extreme long shot the screen space is filled primarily with the surroundings: in the western genre this is a panoramic view of a desolate plain, mountain or valley, its been used in rashomon as the men are sitting in the background under the hut with the rain pouring down in front of them it is  illustrating the barren, harsh environment an antagonist is set in; thereby explaining his psychological state. The continuous theme of death is introduced straight away  in the dialogued used by the men in this scene, words such as “war” “death”. Theatrical ways of filming and diagonal have been used this reflects another typical theme of Japanese films, it shows the over exaggeration of characters acting  and the use if close ups. It makes it clear to the audience what the actors emotion is.  Low key lighting has been used this also reflects the sad mood. An unusual medium shot of the two characters sitting on the steps contemplating the ferocity of what they’ve witnessed, creates an alignment which represents this feeling. The slow paced editing additionally adds an element of gloom to the opening sequence along with the low key lighting and high contrast, all symbolising the current emotions of the characters. By using these techniques the audience can see the representation of not only the characters in the film but the misery of men after the outbreak of war.

In the ending of rashamon, the scene is started off by the ending od the story and that the three men start to contemplate men, and that men are liars, one of the men start throwing away the wood into the rain this represents the fire burning out like there is no hope left for man kind. Then suddenly there is a dietetic sound of baby cries, again this sound is often associated with horror films. The two men start to argue they are pushed out into the rain this is significant as it is though the so could “truth” has finally home or metaphorically speaking poured onto them. The messages of truth that men will never change. Then there is a transitional fade sequence of the men standing with no movement, the rain stops. This sequence represents that time has passed on by and that the man has thought about his actions of stealing. The man then decides to adopt the baby in an act of kindness and to prove that man can do good in this world. Uplifting music starts to play reflecting the positive situation and it contrast with the negative music at the beginning, there is a low angle shot of the man as the film comes to an end, showing the man has become powerful as he is trying to make a change in his life by looking after this baby, representing men as being hopeful for the future.

At the begging of  Irezumi film men are represents as abusive, the Tattoo artist Seikichi drugs Otsuya  and forcefully draws a tattoo on her back without consent. In this scene sonic perspective is used when the needle is digging into her back this makes the scene more intense and brutallity of the situation reflcting the mans dominance. This scene could also be seen as a metaphor for rape as the needle is entering the girl by the man, this represents men as being controlling. However, through the attributes of Shinsuke are visibly depicted as weak and inferior to women; especially in terms of a tight framed, composition, abstract show which positions Shinsuke to the wall in the opening sequence. Through positioning his character next to the structures of the room rather than the centre alike Otsuya, we see he is trapped in a dominant, claustrophobic relationship. Even when he tries to kill her, he falls under her manipulative spell and his weakness, in addition to his stupidity, is the effect of his demise. Men in Golden Age films, such as ‘Rashomon’, are more stereotypically ‘masculine’ and ‘powerful’ when it comes to taming women.

 

In the opening  of this film there is alot of signs to indicate danger such as the mise en scene of her clothing being the color red also the dietetic sound  the bell and the pathetic fallacy of the snow reflecting how  Otsuya is cold hear-ted. The camerawork used  is close up shots  to showing the intensity of pain  through  Otsuya  facial expressions, this also reflects the theatricality of the scene which is commonly used in Japanese films.  Also Tight framing has been used this is to reflect  the main theme of ‘being trapped’,  At the begging of this film women are represented as weak and in the ownership of men. This addresses the is issue of  the time as in japan at the time of this film being published there was a  post-war economic miracle this is when  Japan rapidly became the world’s second largest economy (after the United States) by the 1960s. However although the   welfare society maintained a   high total of employment, it included many part-time workers who  did not enjoy the workplace benefits and had very low pay, and were largely women. These people oftern worked for small companies that did not provide benefits such as lifetime employment as big companies started to do therefore there was a lot of unemployment in these small companies. This idea of women not getting good jobs and men benefiting more from society at the time is represented in this film, even though Otsuya gets kidnapped into prostitution, she has no other option as the society at the time does not allow her to get high payed job so has to earn money through prostitution. There is a lot of  low angle shots of Otsuya showing her leadership through the film, her higher status, however i think this only due to the fact her farther is of a high status.She trys to control certain men in the film through black mail such as Shinsuke, this due to the spider tattoo on her back. who seduces and manipulates her prey; an element not explored in ‘Ugetsu’ for example. ‘Ugetsu’, 1953 (Mizoguchi) rather explores the destruction of war rather than the social achievements which were underway and presents the hypocrisy of male dominance. This can be supported when the wives in ‘Ugetsu’ are demonstrated as wise and humble when trying to persuade their husbands not to fulfil their dangerous passions however are dismissed due to their gender. A way in which Otsuya asserts power in through her intense sexuality and throwing her money behind her back, knowing that Shinsuke will always be there behind her. In ‘Irezumi’, the only other female participants are Otsuya’s mother and the wife Shinsuke and Otsuya visit when they want to elope. The expressionist red kimono creates a stark contrast to the loyal wife dressed in all black, a symbol of the ‘ideal woman.’ It can be said that in both new wave films, ‘Irezumi’ and ‘Kuroneko’ (1968 Shindo), the woman are robbed of the prospect of the ideal woman and forced to embody a supernatural being unwillingly- due to men. The motif of sound frequently playing when the spider makes an appearance also stimulates the recurring power symbol that Otsuya’s dominance is always there, threatening the men.

In comparison to the representation of women in Rashomon where the women are prsented as week within the middle seqequence of the film where the men are trying to fight for her. Women are also presented as gohst, when the Samaria is talking though the medium, a high shot has been used in the shot before the medium it makes the men look vulnerable therefor scared of the past. There is a low angle shot of the medium this reflects her strangeness also shows the contrast from the others.  There is also a zoom into the mediums face this also reflects her weirdness as it zooms it into her facial expressions.  Over the shoulder shots used to show the facial expression of the people in the background, and seeing from the persons point of view. The wind in the background and flowing through her wavy dress makes the scene more dramatic. The Medium represents no realism, and links with the grudge. This is similar to Ugestu directed by monogatori  where a goahst is presented through a man to test his greed, Furthermore, pathetic fallacy also instigates the presentation of Otsuya and the mother in ‘Kuroneko’ to be demonic and gothic in both ending sequences, therefore highlighting how gothic horror is on going theme through out all these japanese films.

The representations of samurai between ‘Irezumi’ and ‘Rashomon’ are contradictory due to them being represented as noble and respected in ‘Rashomon’ whilst violent and disrespectful in ‘Irezumi’. For example, Serizawa, the samurai in ‘Irezumi’, has similar corresponding values of life to the protagonist, Otsuya as he says ‘between man and woman this is a fight to the death.’ This suggests that Serizawa has values of war in every aspect of his life including his distorted relationship with Otsuya. In addition to his, when Serizawa attempts to kill her he shifts the responsibility onto the fact that he wasn’t in control, presenting a message that samurais are unable to tame themselves. The opening of ‘Irezumi’ is also enigmatic due to not introducing a samurai- an interesting narrative device which shows that the significance of samurais in the new wave era have declined in comparison to Golden Age films. ‘Kuroneko’, an additional new wave case study also sparks values that samurai are animalistic and greedy through the rape of the mother and the daughter-in-law. It seems that in both films, men tarnish the essence of womanhood through the spider and the act of rape, leaving both to end with no moral guidance or compass and ending the films with a negative tone. Although women are cynical and domineering, they are still abused by intense masculinity.

‘Irezumi’, 1966 (Masumara) is one of the new wave films in Japanese cinema which evolved the domestic to no longer dominate the narrative; a common attribute to Golden Age cinema. This radical expressionism contrasts with ‘Rashomon’, 1950 (Kurosawa), a post-war film which contributes to the Western demand that Kurosawa was influenced by in his youth. ‘Rashomon’ demonstrates surfacing values that women are inferior and weak and are easily led by the sexual drive of men. Masumara however was able to break the binding stereotypes of docile female characters.

Prosperity in Japan unexpectedly boomed and became known as the ‘Japanese economic miracle.’ This was partially due to interventionism of the government and the aid of America after the Second World War. America’s contribution was because of the mass fear of communism spreading from the Soviet Union, allowing powerful union enterprises and highly unionised blue-collar factories to soar. It was apparent that this industrialisation was able to benefit the Japanese film industry. With the economy having a positive correlation, society was able to progress allowing women to have more opportunities outside the home in terms of employment and leisurely activities.

The representations of samurai between ‘Irezumi’ and ‘Rashomon’ are contradictory due to them being represented as noble and respected in ‘Rashomon’ whilst violent and disrespectful in ‘Irezumi’. For example, Serizawa, the samurai in ‘Irezumi’, has similar corresponding values of life to the protagonist, Otsuya as he says ‘between man and woman this is a fight to the death.’ This suggests that Serizawa has values of war in every aspect of his life including his distorted relationship with Otsuya. In addition to his, when Serizawa attempts to kill her he shifts the responsibility onto the fact that he wasn’t in control, presenting a message that samurais are unable to tame themselves. The opening of ‘Irezumi’ is also enigmatic due to not introducing a samurai- an interesting narrative device which shows that the significance of samurais in the new wave era have declined in comparison to Golden Age films. ‘Kuroneko’, an additional new wave case study also sparks values that samurai are animalistic and greedy through the rape of the mother and the daughter-in-law. It seems that in both films, men tarnish the essence of womanhood through the spider and the act of rape, leaving both to end with no moral guidance or compass and ending the films with a negative tone. Although women are cynical and domineering, they are still abused by intense masculinity.

The use of pathetic fallacy in the first scene of ‘Rashomon’ is effective as by reflecting the mood of the characters, we have a certain expectation of despair and the technique of ‘in media res’ contributes to this. By Kurosawa dyeing the rain black, there’s an extra component of sorrow and misery, as every detail of the rain is being picked up on. The use of diegetic sound alone creates a realistic and eerie approach to the opening and has a tense effect on the audience who are anticipating dialogue. An interesting technique Kurosawa uses to represent the fragmentation and despair of the character’s is the diagonal positioning, a motif used throughout the film. For example, an unusual medium shot of the two characters sitting on the steps contemplating the ferocity of what they’ve witnessed, creates an alignment which represents this feeling. The slow paced editing additionally adds an element of gloom to the opening sequence along with the low key lighting and high contrast, all symbolising the current emotions of the characters. By using these techniques the audience can see the representation of not only the characters in the film but the misery of men after the outbreak of war.

Men in ‘Irezumi’, through the attributes of Shinsuke are visibly depicted as weak and inferior to women; especially in terms of a tight framed, composition, abstract show which positions Shinsuke to the wall in the opening sequence. Through positioning his character next to the structures of the room rather than the centre alike Otsuya, we see he is trapped in a dominant, claustrophobic relationship. Even when he tries to kill her, he falls under her manipulative spell and his weakness, in addition to his stupidity, is the effect of his demise. Men in Golden Age films, such as ‘Rashomon’, are more stereotypically ‘masculine’ and ‘powerful’ when it comes to taming women.

Masumara visually presents Otsuya through her red kimono as a ‘femme fatale’ who seduces and manipulates her prey; an element not explored in ‘Ugetsu’ for example. ‘Ugetsu’, 1953 (Mizoguchi) rather explores the destruction of war rather than the social achievements which were underway and presents the hypocrisy of male dominance. This can be supported when the wives in ‘Ugetsu’ are demonstrated as wise and humble when trying to persuade their husbands not to fulfil their dangerous passions however are dismissed due to their gender. A way in which Otsuya asserts power in through her intense sexuality and throwing her money behind her back, knowing that Shinsuke will always be there behind her. In ‘Irezumi’, the only other female participants are Otsuya’s mother and the wife Shinsuke and Otsuya visit when they want to elope. The expressionist red kimono creates a stark contrast to the loyal wife dressed in all black, a symbol of the ‘ideal woman.’ It can be said that in both new wave films, ‘Irezumi’ and ‘Kuroneko’ (1968 Shindo), the woman are robbed of the prospect of the ideal woman and forced to embody a supernatural being unwillingly- due to men. The motif of sound frequently playing when the spider makes an appearance also stimulates the recurring power symbol that Otsuya’s dominance is always there, threatening the men.

‘Kuroneko’ alike ‘Irezumi’ who demonstrates expressive content still exhibits cultural, traditional mise en scene such as the bamboo groves and the wild hair of the mother when she retrieves her am. German expressionism in addition to social change was able to guide the two films through high key contrast lighting whilst interpreting their own expressive dynamic- tracking camera. This feature (exclusively used in ‘Kuroneko’) in addition to the wide empty space of darkness beyond the theatrical spotlights was able to reflect the supernatural genre which was surfacing at this time.  Furthermore, pathetic fallacy also instigates the presentation of Otsuya and the mother in ‘Kuroneko’ to be demonic and gothic in both ending sequences. This representation also highlights the use of genre and the changing exploitation of women. Although both new wave films offer modernised features such as unorthodox editing techniques of jump cuts (final sequence in ‘Kuroneko’); there are still some cultural traditions. For example, in ‘Irezumi’, the repetition of tight framing is a conservative shot in terms of sexual explicit acts. This is where Otsuya invites Serizawa to have sex with her, keeping the reminiscent traditional composure which has always been prominent in Japanese cinema

Considerably, new wave cinema represents samurais, men and women in the same light through sound (motif of spider and the motif of killing samurai shows that they’re powerful); light (theatrical lighting gives the idea that the spotlight is heaven and the surrounding darkness is hell which is where the Kuroneko spirit is when trying to get her arm back) and the dialogue. It is apparent that due to social and economic change, Japan was able to transform the limited domestic roles of women into badass, vengeful protagonists. The shift from Rashomon and Ugetsu to Irezumi and Kuroneko is extreme and led the film industry from jidaigeki to supernatural gothic horror.

How far have your contextual studies informed your understanding of characters and their situations you have studied for this topic?

The films i will be focusing on is two golden age films, Rashomon directed by Kurosawa (1950) and  Ugestu directed by Mizoguchi (1953). These golden age films reflect the aftermath of World War II and particularly the atomic bomb, and the subsequent American occupation left the country scarred, but filled with inspiration and eagerness to start over. I will also be focusing on two films produced in the new wave, Irezumi directed by Masumara  (1966) and Kuroneko directed by shindo (1968). These new wave films represents a  post-war economic miracle this is when  Japan rapidly became the world’s second largest economy.

The opening of Rashomon it starts of with montage of shots showing different images of where the film is set, there are diagonal lines shown through wood this reflects the complicated and disturbing situation japan is it after the war, Also the director of the film Kurosawa, was  also an abstract artist so he likes to reflect abstract shapes into his film, his use of long shots come from the western genre, due to the US power. There is a  establishing shot of the Japaneses hut this instantly shows the audience the after effects of the war shown through the hut building as  it is destroyed.  This sets the scene with the pouring of rain this reflects the pathetic fallacy of the situation, as the guys are feeling down about reflecting on war and how men are supposedly all lairs. “i just dont understand” The rain stops as they are talking shows that what their talking about should be focused on. The Slow editing used also reflects the sad slow mood. There is a long shot used this is a typical micro feature of a Japanese film, as The extreme long shot was first invented by the western genre typically the “lonerider”, occupies a small ratio of the screen space in relation to the setting or their surroundings. In the extreme long shot the screen space is filled primarily with the surroundings: in the western genre this is a panoramic view of a desolate plain, mountain or valley, its been used in rashomon as the men are sitting in the background under the hut with the rain pouring down in front of them it is  illustrating the barren, harsh environment an antagonist is set in; thereby explaining his psychological state. The continuous theme of death is introduced straight away  in the dialogued used by the men in this scene, words such as “war” “death”. Theatrical ways of filming and diagonal have been used this reflects another typical theme of Japanese films, it shows the over exaggeration of characters acting  and the use if close ups. It makes it clear to the audience what the actors emotion is.  Low key lighting has been used this also reflects the sad mood. The middle sequence Im going to focused on is when the Samaria is talking though the medium, a high shot has been used in the shot before the medium it makes the men look vulnerable therefor scared of the past. There is a low angle shot of the medium this reflects her strangeness also shows the contrast from the others.  There is also a zoom into the mediums face this also reflects her weirdness as it zooms it into her facial expressions.  Over the shoulder shots used to show the facial expression of the people in the background, and seeing from the persons point of view. The wind in the background and flowing through her wavy dress makes the scene more dramatic. The Medium represents no realism, and links with the grudge. The man says ‘man just wants to forget the bad things, and believe in the made up good things’ this is a pessimistic point of view   of things this view has been said because probably the people of japan at the time were annoyed at the fact USA government have control over Japan. There is a cut to the men talking with  thunder and lighting then it jump cuts to a devil statue this represents the Gothic horror film. The mans voice to echoing from the medium this reflects how over powerful he is and reflects his ghostly  ways. You cant hear the wind as the viewer this reflects the supernatural, the only sound you can hear is the dietetic sound of the mans chanting i think this is to reflect his suffering from his death. Women in this sequence are represented as liars this is also a key theme of Japanese film is that  women are often represented as horrible people. In the ending of rashamon, the scene is started off by the ending od the story and that the three men start to contemplate men, and that men are liars, one of the men start throwing away the wood into the rain this represents the fire burning out like there is no hope left for man kind. Then suddenly there is a dietetic sound of baby cries, again this sound is often associated with horror films. The two men start to argue they are pushed out into the rain this is significant as it is though the so could “truth” has finally home or metaphorically speaking poured onto them. The messages of truth that men will never change. Then there is a transitional fade sequence of the men standing with no movement, the rain stops. This sequence represents that time has passed on by and that the man has thought about his actions of stealing. The man then decides to adopt the baby in an act of kindness and to prove that man can do good in this world. Uplifting music starts to play reflecting the positive situation and it contrast with the negative music at the beginning, there is a low angle shot of the man as the film comes to an end, showing the man has become powerful as he is trying to make a change in his life by looking after this baby.

The opening

How might we compare the ending to the film with the opening? What does the film have to say?

Music is sad from the start of the film when Benigo and Marco  is sitting in the theater and the end as Marco walks into Benigo apartment, this signifies that the whole film is based on a tragedy as the viewer knows something bad is going to happen. As the negative music in the opening is signifying  a negative moment which is the rape to come. The negative music at the end is representing Marcos realization of how obsessed Benigo is with Alicia due to the pictures of Alicia in his apartment, also as there is a close up Alicia as she sits on a chair in the dance studio. This is then shown as a action reaction shot as the music is heightened when cuts back to a close up of Marco showing his shocked expression. In the beginning of the film Benigo is Talking about how he needs to get a photo framed and talking about a catalogue of new furniture this is then clear to the viewer from the end of the film that Benigo created his apartment for him Alicia to live in. There is a close up of Marcos phone and a book on the bed side table this represents Almadovas use of media in the film to portray a message through, the same as the use of the theatrical performance at the beginning to show the show and book link to the following scenes in the film. From the beginning of the film Both characters Marco and Benigo are sat together in the same frame, however Marco is crying but Benigo isn’t, this from the start represents the characters as the same but showing that Benigo is different represented as being emotionless. However a the end of the film when Benigo is in prison and Marco comes to visit they are not framed together, you see them differently through the use of shot reverse shot, and both characters are crying at this point. This represents the men as being quite similar, this scene also represents men as being weak, when men especially men in prison are usually stereotyped as being tough. Also in the scene before this the Guard at the prison said to Marco that he cant tell Benigo anything about Alicia, this is one of  many scenes in the film that mis guides the viewer and contradicts the film title as the film is called ‘talk to her’ when actually miscommunication is one of the main messages of the film. Portraying it as in issue as Benigo never gets to talk to Alicia and still doesnt get the chance to talk to her as he kills himself, however this could of been for the best.

The use of pathetic fallacy as it is raining at the begging of the film when Alicia is the accident reflects her negative future of being in a coma. Again pathetic fallacy is used again in the ending of the film as there is a close up shot of a windiw as rain drops fall, this is from a Point of view shot from Benigo, it then cuts back to a mid shot of Benigo he says “i like rainy days” as this is Benigo reflecting on his time spent looking after Alicia whilst she was in a coma. There is also a  topic change from talking about alicia, when Benigo is asking if Marco is okay, this creates sympathy for Benigo, as even though hes been accused of rape he is still caring for people.

There is a monatge of the prison used at the end of the film, it shows different shots from out side the prison such as the barbed wire, Previous to this Marco had read Benigo voice mail where he says “escape”. So this montage of the outside of the prison mis leads the viewer into thinking he is going to escape the prison, but he actually kills himself. This use of misguidance is also used at the begging of the film as Marco isn’t actually crying about the performance he is crying about his wife. When Marco goes to visit Benigos grave he tells the truth about Alicia being alive, again this is another scene where someone is talking to their selves rather than to the actual person, another act of miscommunication. This contradicts to beginning of the film as Benigo has to lie to the people at the hospital about his love for Alicia. The beginning of the film there is a theatrical performance that portrays a negative vibe, as it represents the two girls in the coma, as the two women on stage are in clothing that looks like Alicia and Lydias hospital gowns and they are both blind towards whats in front of them. The men on the stage are representing Marco and Benigo as they are protecting the women. However this performance is different to the performances at the end as it is more positive as the music is more upbeat, also the dancers on stage are in couples in brighter clothing. This is just after Marco has seen Alicia again for the first time and then both are framed together right at the end of the film presenting their connecting together. There is a order of three as Marco sits on the left of the frame and then there is a gap in the seats to represent as though Benigo would be there to show he is not forgotten and then to the right of the frame sits Alicia with a stoplight on her, this shot and the story of the performance portrays to the audience as though Marco and Alicia are going to be a couple. However from the framed shot of both Marco and Benigo together at the begging of the film , guides the viewer into think both Marco and Benigo are a gay couple.